Course Materials

Major reading material (all provided):

  1. Course Field Manual
  2. Stephen Marshak, 3rd or 4th ed., Essentials of Geology. W.W. Norton.
  3. Clark Larsen, 3rd ed., Essentials of Physical Anthropology. W.W. Norton

Archaeology and Hominins

  1. Leakey, M. D. 1971. Olduvai Gorge: Excavations in Bed I and Bed II, 1960-1963. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Potts, R. 1988. Early hominid activities at Olduvai. New Brunswick, Aldine Transaction.
  3. Leakey L.S.B. 1965. Olduvai Gorge 1951-1961. Vol. 1. A preliminary report on the geology and fauna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  1. Hay, R.L. 1976. Geology of the Olduvai Gorge. Berkeley: Univ. California Press.
  2. Dawson, J.B. 2008. The Gregory Rift Valley and Neogene-Recent Volcanoes of Northern Tanzania. Geological Society, London Memoirs. Vol. 33.
  3. Compton, R.R. 1962. Manual of Field Geology.

Lithic analysis

  1. Toth, N. and Schick, K. 2009. The importance of actualistic studies in Early Stone Age Research. In The Cutting Edge. K. Schick and N. Toth, Eds. (Stone Age Institute Press). Pp. 267-344.
  2. Inizan, M. et al. 1999. Technology and Terminology of Knapped Stones. CREP.

Faunal analysis and taphonomy

  1. Walker, R. 1985. A guide to post-cranial bones of East African animals. Hylochoerus Press.
  2. White, T.D. and Folkens, P.A. 2005. The human bone manual. Academic Press.
  3. Blumenschine, R. et al. 1996. Blind tests of inter-analyst correspondence and accuracy in the identification of cut marks, percussion marks, and carnivore tooth marks on bone surfaces. J. Archaeological Science 23:493-507.
  4. Njau, J.K. 2012. Crocodile predation and hominin evolution: Landcscape paleoanthropology at Olduvai Gorge. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing GmbH and Co. KG.

General Topics + Special Field Sites